Horses. An anticonvulsant in foals and a preanaesthetic to xylazine?ketamine anaesthesia in horses. Dogs. An anticonvulsant and preanaesthetic.
Horses. Convulsant seizures in foals. Generalised seizures with episodic convulsion in the neonatal foal are rapidly controlled in many cases by IV injection of diazepam. Dose rates of between 5 and 20 mg (1 to 4 mL)/50 kg bodyweight are administered by slow IV injection and repeated when necessary. Diazepam administration may be fatal at higher dose rates in the convulsing foal. Lack of response or rapid reappearance of seizures following repeated dosage with diazepam will necessitate administration of pentobarbital sodium by slow IV injection.
Preanaesthetic. Horse diazepam is administered as a premedicant to xylazine?ketamine anaesthesia in horses to smooth both anaesthetic induction and recovery. The advantages of the regimen are prolonged analgesia, muscle relaxation and stable cardiopulmonary function. Diazepam Injection is administered by intramuscular (IM) injection at a dose rate of 60 mg/450 kg bodyweight (12 mL/450 kg), 20 minutes prior to xylazine injection. Xylazine is administered by IV injection at a dose rate of 1.1 mg/kg per 450 kg bodyweight, with sedation and ataxia resulting in two to three minutes. Ketamine is then administered to finalise induction at a dose rate of ketamine 2.2 mg/kg per 450 kg bodyweight by rapid IV injection.
Dogs. Preanaesthetic. Diazepam injection administered by IM or IV injection at a rate of 0.2 to 0.6 mg/kg (Diazepam Injection 0.2 to 0.6 mL/5 kg bodyweight) is a safe and effective premedicant to various anaesthetic regimes in the dog. Premedication with diazepam is appropriate for the cardiac compromised patient.
Status epilepticus. Diazepam injection has been successfully used for treatment of clinical status epilepticus in dogs. An initial dose of 5 mg (Diazepam Injection 1 mL) is administered by slow IV injection. A repeat dose is given if the initial dose fails to satisfactorily stop the seizure within one to two minutes. Pentobarbitone sodium (16.5 mg/kg by slow IV injection) is then administered if clinical signs persist following the second diazepam injection. In the healthy adult animal, mild generalised weakness and tranquillisation are usually evident for about three hours following diazepam administration.
Strychnine poisoning. Diazepam is the first line drug of choice for control of life threatening seizures which characterise dogs presenting with strychnine poisoning. An initial IV dose of diazepam 1 mg/kg (Diazepam Injection 2 mL/10 kg bodyweight) slowly by IV injection, followed by the same dose by IM injection, may be administered to initiate treatment.
Do not use in pregnant animals.